Pre pandemic tenure security and rental affordability

This table shows the crisis responses that were implemented in Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and the USA specifically aimed at protection for rental housing residence. It gives a high-level overview of the relative levels of regulatory assurance of these aspects of renting for each of these countries, necessarily passing over some significant differences in the legal mechanisms used between countries, and some significant differences between jurisdictions within countries. For indicators of tenure security, the table indicates whether landlords may take termination proceedings without disclosing reasons or where these may be invoked only on certain legally prescribed grounds, and the degree to which tenants’ circumstances are considered by the relevant tribunal in termination proceedings. This may be limited by laws that make termination in some rent arrears and no-grounds proceedings mandatory (as in most jurisdictions in Australia, the UK and the…

Income protection variation

This table asks which types of income protection variation measures precipitated by the COVID-19 crisis predominated in Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Spain, the UK and the USA. It also looks at whether pre-existing policies were important, if there is any evidence that specific policies were prematurely ended (i.e. where the factors originally prompting intervention remained in evidence); and whether policies introduced as a result of the pandemic are likely to continue in the longer term.

Gross Domestic Product, real, seasonally adjusted, domestic currency - indexed (Q4 2019=100)

This graph shows that the UK and Spain were more seriously affected economically by COVID-19 than Australia, Canada, Germany, New Zealand and the USA.  

Cumulative COVID-19 deaths per million population (as at 31 January 2022)

This graph shows how many deaths from COVID-19 were experienced per million head of population as at 31 January 2022 for the USA, UK, Spain, Germany, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It also shows the average number of cumulative deaths around the world. It shows how the pandemic has been much more series in the USA, the UK and Spain than in the other northern hemisphere countries.

Covid, inequality and poverty in 2020 & 2021: How poverty and inequality were reduced in the COVID recession and increased during the recovery. Build back fairer, report 3

Covid, inequality and poverty in 2020 & 2021: How poverty and inequality were reduced in the COVID recession and increased during the recovery. Build Back Fairer series, report no. 3 Read or download the report at:  

Change in number of workers employed by occupation (000s)

This graph shows that, from August 2020 to August 2021 (centre bars): * The number of people employed in lower-paid occupations rose by 71,000; * The number in middle-paid occupations fell by 5,000; * The number in higher-paid occupations rose by 251,000.

Percentage of people receiving JobKeeper and COVID Supplements by household income groups

This figure shows shows how COVID income support payments were distributed among households ranked by income in 2020. JobKeeper Payment mainly lifted the incomes of middle income-households at risk of losing their jobs, and Coronavirus Supplement lifted the incomes of low-income households on income support payments. Towards the end of the recession in September 2020: * Around three quarters (76%) of JobKeeper Payments went to the middle 60%; * A similar proportion of the Coronavirus Supplement (70%) went to the lowest 40%. * The highest 20% received just 19% of the value of JobKeeper Payment and 6% of that of Coronavirus Supplement.

Impact of past recessions on household after-tax incomes

This figure shows changes in household after-tax incomes brought about by the recessions of the early 1980s and 1990s (left and right-hand clusters).

Changes in average before-tax income of households ranked by private income March-December 2020

This graph shows that, from March 2020 to December 2020: * The average incomes of the lowest 20% income group (who mainly relied on pensions) rose by 8% ($56pw); * Those of the next 20% (mainly low-paid workers and families on income support) rose by 11% ($144pw); * The average incomes of the middle 20% rose by 3% ($53pw) and those of the next 20% rose by 2% ($67pw); * In contrast, the average incomes of the highest 20% fell by 4% ($230pw).

Change in household income (as a % of after-tax income in June 2019)

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian National Accounts. Note: Shows growth in different components of household income from June 2019 (before COVID) to June 2020 (recession), and from June 2020 to June 2021 (recovery), as a percentage of average after-tax household income in June 2019. Income tax is expressed in negative values (so a positive value means a reduction in tax). Note that the value of some components fell. Yellow = an increase would be expected to reduce inequality (more so if darker); Blue = an increase would be expected to increase inequality (more so if darker). Grey = an increase has an indeterminant impact on inequality. This graph compares changes in the main components of household incomes in the financial year of the recession (from June quarter 2019 to June quarter 2020), and the first year of recovery (from June 2020 to June 2021). Changes in the overall value of each income component through each of these years are expressed as a proportion of…